Thursday, August 19, 2010

About Robot

With the revolution of technology, human works are replaced by automatic machines. Thus automation technology becomes popular in industry, office works and even in homes. A new type of automation technology has become available that is adjustable, adaptable and flexible enough not only to the change in the design of the product, but also to the change in the process of manufacture of the products. This type of automation is termed as Programmable automation. Here Programmable means that one set of tasks can be easily switched over to another set by changing the computerized instructions. An Example of Programmable Automation technology is the robot. The name Robot came from Czechoslovakian word Robota, which means a worker or a slave doing heavy work. In 1921-22, Karel Capek, a Czechoslovakian playwright introduce the concepts of humanoid in his play titled “Rossum’s Universal Robots”. In the same time, a Gyrocompass used in a ship and governor used for controlling the speed of steam locomotives or automobiles had also been called robots. In the 70's, automatic machines with the capability of lifting materials, tools, etc. and performing tasks as instructed by the master had also been called robots.

Therefore a robot is a machine that carries out the tasks done by a human being. A robot may do assembly work where some sort of intelligence decision- making capability as expected from a man is needed. A robot sometime does heavy work and automatically performs the same task repetitively.

An Industrial Robot has been defined as a reprogrammable multi functional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.
Though robots came into focus in 1961 when Unimation Inc., USA introduced the first servo-controlled industrial robots, their historical background may be divided into three stages.
• Ancient and post historic ages
• Post-Industrial renaissance age
• Microelectronics and microprocessor age

Sir Isaac Asimov dealing on the subject of robotics framed three basic laws which the robotocists still obey with respect. The laws are philosophical in nature. They are as follows:
First Law: A robot must not harm a human being or, through inaction, allow one to come to harm.
Second Law: A robot must always obey human beings unless it is in conflict with the first law.
Third Law: A robot must protect itself from harm unless that is in conflict with the first and/or the second laws.

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